Examples of creating base64 hashes using HMAC SHA256 in different languages

I recently went through the processing of creating SDKs for an in house API. The API required signing every REST request with HMAC SHA256 signatures. Those signatures then needed to be converted to base64. Amazon S3 uses base64 strings for their hashes. There are some good reasons to use base64 encoding. See the stackOverflow question What is the use of base 64 encoding?

Below are some simplified HMAC SHA 256 solutions. They should all output qnR8UCqJggD55PohusaBNviGoOJ67HC6Btry4qXLVZc= given the values of secret and Message. Take notice of the capital M. The hashed message is case sensitive.

Jump to an implementation:

Javascript HMAC SHA256

Run the code online with this jsfiddle. Dependent upon an open source js library called http://code.google.com/p/crypto-js/.

<script src="http://crypto-js.googlecode.com/svn/tags/3.0.2/build/rollups/hmac-sha256.js"></script>
<script src="http://crypto-js.googlecode.com/svn/tags/3.0.2/build/components/enc-base64-min.js"></script>

<script>
  var hash = CryptoJS.HmacSHA256("Message", "secret");
  var hashInBase64 = CryptoJS.enc.Base64.stringify(hash);
  document.write(hashInBase64);
</script>

PHP HMAC SHA256

PHP has built in methods for hash_hmac (PHP 5) and base64_encode (PHP 4, PHP 5) resulting in no outside dependencies. Say what you want about PHP but they have the cleanest code for this example.

$s = hash_hmac('sha256', 'Message', 'secret', true);
echo base64_encode($s);

Java HMAC SHA256

Dependent on Apache Commons Codec to encode in base64.

import javax.crypto.Mac;
import javax.crypto.spec.SecretKeySpec;
import org.apache.commons.codec.binary.Base64;

public class ApiSecurityExample {
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    try {
     String secret = "secret";
     String message = "Message";

     Mac sha256_HMAC = Mac.getInstance("HmacSHA256");
     SecretKeySpec secret_key = new SecretKeySpec(secret.getBytes(), "HmacSHA256");
     sha256_HMAC.init(secret_key);

     String hash = Base64.encodeBase64String(sha256_HMAC.doFinal(message.getBytes()));
     System.out.println(hash);
    }
    catch (Exception e){
     System.out.println("Error");
    }
   }
}

Groovy HMAC SHA256

It is mostly java code but there are some slight differences. Adapted from Dev Takeout - Groovy HMAC/SHA256 representation.

import javax.crypto.Mac;
import javax.crypto.spec.SecretKeySpec;
import java.security.InvalidKeyException;

def hmac_sha256(String secretKey, String data) {
 try {
    Mac mac = Mac.getInstance("HmacSHA256")
    SecretKeySpec secretKeySpec = new SecretKeySpec(secretKey.getBytes(), "HmacSHA256")
    mac.init(secretKeySpec)
    byte[] digest = mac.doFinal(data.getBytes())
    return digest
   } catch (InvalidKeyException e) {
    throw new RuntimeException("Invalid key exception while converting to HMac SHA256")
  }
}

def hash = hmac_sha256("secret", "Message")
encodedData = hash.encodeBase64().toString()
log.info(encodedData)

C# HMAC SHA256

using System.Security.Cryptography;

namespace Test
{
  public class MyHmac
  {
    private string CreateToken(string message, string secret)
    {
      secret = secret ?? "";
      var encoding = new System.Text.ASCIIEncoding();
      byte[] keyByte = encoding.GetBytes(secret);
      byte[] messageBytes = encoding.GetBytes(message);
      using (var hmacsha256 = new HMACSHA256(keyByte))
      {
        byte[] hashmessage = hmacsha256.ComputeHash(messageBytes);
        return Convert.ToBase64String(hashmessage);
      }
    }
  }
}

Objective C and Cocoa HMAC SHA256

Most of the code required was for converting to bae64 and working the NSString and NSData data types.

#import "AppDelegate.h"
#import <CommonCrypto/CommonHMAC.h>

@implementation AppDelegate

- (void)applicationDidFinishLaunching:(NSNotification *)aNotification {
 NSString* key = @"secret";
 NSString* data = @"Message";

 const char *cKey = [key cStringUsingEncoding:NSASCIIStringEncoding];
 const char *cData = [data cStringUsingEncoding:NSASCIIStringEncoding];
 unsigned char cHMAC[CC_SHA256_DIGEST_LENGTH];
 CCHmac(kCCHmacAlgSHA256, cKey, strlen(cKey), cData, strlen(cData), cHMAC);
 NSData *hash = [[NSData alloc] initWithBytes:cHMAC length:sizeof(cHMAC)];

 NSLog(@"%@", hash);

 NSString* s = [AppDelegate base64forData:hash];
 NSLog(s);
}

+ (NSString*)base64forData:(NSData*)theData {
 const uint8_t* input = (const uint8_t*)[theData bytes];
 NSInteger length = [theData length];

 static char table[] = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/=";

 NSMutableData* data = [NSMutableData dataWithLength:((length + 2) / 3) * 4];
 uint8_t* output = (uint8_t*)data.mutableBytes;

 NSInteger i;
 for (i=0; i < length; i += 3) {
 NSInteger value = 0;
 NSInteger j;
 for (j = i; j < (i + 3); j++) {
 value <<= 8;

 if (j < length) {  value |= (0xFF & input[j]);  }  }  NSInteger theIndex = (i / 3) * 4;  output[theIndex + 0] = table[(value >> 18) & 0x3F];
 output[theIndex + 1] = table[(value >> 12) & 0x3F];
 output[theIndex + 2] = (i + 1) < length ? table[(value >> 6) & 0x3F] : '=';
 output[theIndex + 3] = (i + 2) < length ? table[(value >> 0) & 0x3F] : '=';
 }

 return [[NSString alloc] initWithData:data encoding:NSASCIIStringEncoding]; }

@end

Go programming language - Golang HMAC SHA256

package main

import (
    "crypto/hmac"
    "crypto/sha256"
    "encoding/base64"
    "fmt"
)

func ComputeHmac256(message string, secret string) string {
    key := []byte(secret)
    h := hmac.New(sha256.New, key)
    h.Write([]byte(message))
    return base64.StdEncoding.EncodeToString(h.Sum(nil))
}

func main() {
    fmt.Println(ComputeHmac256("Message", "secret"))
}

Ruby HMAC SHA256

Requires openssl and base64.

require 'openssl'
require "base64"

hash  = OpenSSL::HMAC.digest('sha256', "secret", "Message")
puts Base64.encode64(hash)

Python (2.7) HMAC SHA256

import hashlib
import hmac
import base64

message = bytes("Message").encode('utf-8')
secret = bytes("secret").encode('utf-8')

signature = base64.b64encode(hmac.new(secret, message, digestmod=hashlib.sha256).digest())
print(signature)

Tested with Python 2.7.6. Also, be sure not to name your python demo script the same as one of the imported libraries.

Perl HMAC SHA256

See Digest::SHA documentation. By convention, the Digest modules do not pad their Base64 output. To fix this you can test the length of the hash and append equal signs "=" until it is the length is a multiple of 4. We will use a modulus function below.

use Digest::SHA qw(hmac_sha256_base64);
$digest = hmac_sha256_base64("Message", "secret");

# digest is currently: qnR8UCqJggD55PohusaBNviGoOJ67HC6Btry4qXLVZc

# Fix padding of Base64 digests
while (length($digest) % 4) {
    $digest .= '=';
}

print $digest;
# digest is now: qnR8UCqJggD55PohusaBNviGoOJ67HC6Btry4qXLVZc=

Dart HMAC SHA256

Dependent upon the Dart crypto package.

import 'dart:html';
import 'dart:convert';
import 'package:crypto/crypto.dart';

void main() {

  String secret = 'secret';
  String message = 'Message';

  List<int> secretBytes = UTF8.encode('secret');
  List<int> messageBytes = UTF8.encode('Message');

  var hmac = new HMAC(new SHA256(), secretBytes);
  hmac.add(messageBytes);
  var digest = hmac.close();

  var hash = CryptoUtils.bytesToBase64(digest);

  // output to html page
  querySelector('#hash').text = hash;
  // hash => qnR8UCqJggD55PohusaBNviGoOJ67HC6Btry4qXLVZc=
}

Swift HMAC SHA256

I have not verified but see this stackOverflow post

Rust

Take a look at the alco/rust-digest repository for Rust (lang) guidance. I have not verified yet.

Powershell (Windows) HMAC SHA256

Mostly wrapping of .NET libraries but useful to see it in powershell's befuddling syntax. See code as gist

$message = 'Message'
$secret = 'secret'

$hmacsha = New-Object System.Security.Cryptography.HMACSHA256
$hmacsha.key = [Text.Encoding]::ASCII.GetBytes($secret)
$signature = $hmacsha.ComputeHash([Text.Encoding]::ASCII.GetBytes($message))
$signature = [Convert]::ToBase64String($signature)

echo $signature

# Do we get the expected signature?
echo ($signature -eq 'qnR8UCqJggD55PohusaBNviGoOJ67HC6Btry4qXLVZc=')